From introduction of first commercial mobile phone in 1983 by Motorola, mobile technology has come so far. Here technepalguide will highlight the basic features of these generations that differentiate it from the previous generations and will point out Hype of 5g too.
The 1st commercial automated cellular network was launched by NTT in Japan in 1979, followed by the launch of Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, in 1981.
- Year – 1970 – 1980s
- Standard – AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System).
- Services – Only Voice
- Technology – Analog
- Speed – 1kbps to 2.4 kbps
- Multiplexing – FDMA
- Switching – circuit switching
- Core Network – PSTN only
- Frequency – 800- 900 MHz
GSM technology was the first one to facilitate digital voice & data and international roaming and allowing customer to roam from place to another. GSM maintains end-to-end security by retaining the confidentiality of calls using Signalling and Data Confidentiality and Mobile station Authentication.
- Year – 1980 -1990
- Technology – Digital
- Speed – 14kbps to 64Kbps
- Frequency Band – 850 – 1900 MHZ (GSM) and 825 – 849 MHz (CDMA)
- Bandwidth/Channel – GSM divides each 200 kHz channel into eight 25 kHz time-slots. CDMA channel is nominally 1.23 MHzwide
- Multiplexing /Access Technology – TDMA & CDMA.
- Switching – Circuit switching
- Year – 2000- 2003
- Standards – General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) & EDGE (Enhanced Data rates in GSM)
- Frequency: 850 -1900 MHz
- Speed – 115kpbs (GPRS)/384kbps(EDGE)
- Switching – packet switching for data transfer
- Multiplexing – Gaussian minimum shift keying-GMSK(GPRS) & EDGE (8-PSK)
- Services – push to talk, multimedia, web based info entertainment, support WAP, MMS, SMS mobile games, and search and directory, email access, video conferencing. Network Components of 2.5(G)
The goal of 3G systems was to offer increased data rates. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has defined the demand for 3G in the International Mobile Telecommunication (IMT)-2000 standards to facilitate growth, greater voice and data capacity, support diverse applications, and high data transmission at low-cost.
The data are sent through the technology called Packet Switching .Voice calls are interpreted through Circuit Switching.
Consequently, the industry began looking to data-optimized 4th-generation technologies, with the promise of speed improvements up to 10-fold over existing 3G technologies. It is basically the extension in the 3G technology with more bandwidth and services offers in the 3G.
The expectation for the 4G technology is basically the high quality audio/video streaming over end to end Internet Protocol.The first two commercially available technologies billed as 4G were the WiMAX standard and the LTE standard, first offered in Scandinavia by TeliaSonera.
One of the main ways in which 4G differed technologically from 3G was in its elimination of circuit switching, instead employing an all-IP network. Thus, 4G ushered in a treatment of voice calls just like any other type of streaming audio media, utilizing packet switching overinternet, LAN or WAN networks via VoIP.
With the 4G telecommunications systems now starting to be deployed, eyes are looking towards the development of 5th generation or 5G technology and services.Although the deployment of any wireless or cellular system takes many years, development of the 5G technology systems is being investigated. The new 5G technologies will need to be chosen developed and perfected to enable timely and reliable deployment.
The new 5th generation, 5G technology for cellular systems will probably start to come to fruition around 2020 with deployment following on afterwards.
5G mobile systems status
The current status of the 5G technology for cellular systems is very much in the early development stages. Very many companies are looking into the technologies that could be used to become part of the system. In addition to this a number of universities have set up 5G research units focussed on developing the technologies for 5G
In addition to this the standards bodies, particularly 3GPP are aware of the development but are not actively planning the 5G systems yet.
Many of the technologies to be used for 5G will start to appear in the systems used for 4G and then as the new 5G cellular system starts to formulate in a more concrete manner, they will be incorporated into the new 5G cellular system.
The major issue with 5G technology is that there is such an enormously wide variation in the requirements: superfast downloads to small data requirements for IoT than any one system will not be able to meet these needs. Accordingly a layer approach is likely to be adopted. As one commentator stated: 5G is not just a mobile technology. It is ubiquitous access to high & low data rate services.